Islamophobia and Hate Crime Against Muslim-Americans
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Islamophobia is a kind of xenophobia which stigmatizes Middle Eastern-Americans as “others’ against “us”. The important point about Islamophobia is that it is a social phobia and anxiety, not an individualistic one, which can be considered as a reaction toward Islamic identity. Although the history of Islamophobia and hate crime against Middle Eastern-Americans go back to some decades ago but what made this phenomenon highlighted was the terrorist attacks of September 11 conducted by some fundamental Islamic groups. Discussing reasons of Islamophobia and hate crime against Middle Eastern-Americans, this paper refers to three different reasons: misunderstanding and wrong assumptions about Muslims and Middle-Eastern-Americans by majority of people, the negative effect of mainstream media which link Muslims to fundamental Islamic groups, and lack of interaction between Muslims and other people because of different culture like different lifestyles and values. The persistence of Islamophobia and hate crime against Muslims can also lead to serious consequences for American society which are: discrimination against a certain group of the population only because of their ethnicity, damaging United States multiracial identity, and reinforcing Islamic terrorism by radicalizing some ordinary Muslims and making fundamental Jihadist ideas attractive to them.

To participate in this proposal, please contact Soheil Sabriseilabi (

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Soheil Sabriseilabi
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